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«Україна соборна»
ІІІ Міжнародний симпозіум художньої кераміки
м. Слов’янськ, 1 – 17 червня 2010 р.


Подорож до Пархомівки


Подорож до Корсуня


дефіле «Український народний костюм кінця ХІХ – початку ХХ ст.»


34-й міжнародний симпозіум з емалі.
Кечкемет, 23 липня - 3 серпня 2008.


Міжнародний семінар музейників у рамках проекту “МАТРА/ Музеї України”.
м. Харків, 8 - 13 червня 2008


Фестиваль скульптури, кераміки та гончарства.
Румазьер-Лубер, Франція.
16-18 травня, 2008.


Виставка творів Марії Примаченко в Тбілісі


Виставка “Український народний костюм” в Астані


"Подорож до Богданівки"


"Качанівка - 2007"


Вбрання для "Manneken Pis"
Як музей долучився до старовинної традиції




Подорож до Корсуня




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     Рішення про екскурсію до містечка Корсунь-Шевченківський Черкаської області в день міжнародного професійного свята музейних працівників було для нас не випадковим, а цілком закономірним й одноголосним.

     Ранок 18 травня, коли музейний колектив вирушив у дорогу, обіцяв затишну й сонячну погоду, а, отже, по-весняному теплий і радісний настрій. Шлях до Корсуня вразив красою й вишуканістю природних ландшафтів.

На пограниччі Київщини й Черкащини перед нами розгорнулась дивовижна панорама, яка скоріше нагадувала полотно художника, який вправною рукою зобразив усі барви травня: зелене оксамитове буяння дерев, жовтий сонячний цвіт ріпаку, блакитний бездонний колір неба і ніби відчутний на дотик аромат бузкових долин.

     Налаштовані на ліричний лад й аніскільки не втомлені двогодинною дорогою, вже об одинадцятій ми прибули до Корсунь-Шевченківського державного історико-культурного заповідника, розташованого на мальовничих островах славнозвісної красуні-річки Росі. Відвідувачів привітно зустріла завідувач Музею історії Корсунь-Шевченківської битви та його багаторічний працівник Тетяна Юріївна Полякова, яка провела цікаву й змістовну екскурсію куточками цього благословенного місця.


     Знайомство з історією Корсуня логічно розпочалося з історико-краєзнавчого музею, в експозиції якого представлені пам’ятки матеріальної культури краю від найдавніших часів. Дух епохи і славетних подій вдало передають декілька масштабних діорам, що зв’язують між собою експозиційні комплекси і створюють плавний перехід від одного історичного періоду до іншого.

     Далі – Художня галерея, в якій представлена колекція творів живопису, скульптури, графіки кінця ХVІІІ – ХХ ст.

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Тут зберігаються й експонуються роботи як знаних зарубіжних авторів, зокрема, Л. Йоріні, С. Бубіча, так і вітчизняних, серед яких є й такі відомі імена, як І. Сошенко, В. Непийпиво, А. Чебикін, І. Їжакевич. Дбають музейні працівники і про належне вшанування творчості своїх земляків, про що свідчать декілька експозиційних залів, присвячених художньому доробку митців краю.

     Історія безпосередньо палацового ансамблю, що нині об’єднує 10 будівель (за історичними даними, існувало 13) цікава і неоднозначна. Як розповіла Тетяна Юріївна, за час понад двохсотрічного існування він неодноразово змінював свій вигляд. Початок зведення комплексу відноситься до 1782 р., за задумом він мав стати заміською резиденцією корсунського старости князя Станіслава Понятовського. Тодішній Корсунський палац з досвітньою залою був першим палацом на землях Речі Посполитої, збудованим у стилі неоготики.
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     1799 р. власником маєтку став найясніший князь Петро Лопухін. За його наступника – Павла Лопухіна – маєток зазнає кардинальних перетворень, архітектура набуває еклектичних рис: поєднує російський романтизм та елементи неоготики, класицизму, французької оборонної архітектури. У середині ХІХ ст. Корсунський палац вважався одним з найвишуканіших і найбагатших не лише в Росії, а й в усій Європі.

     За господарювання наступного власника – князя Миколи Лопухіна-Демидова – палацовий ансамбль зазнав незначних доповнень, які майже не змінили його художньо-стильових рис.

     Призначення будівель корсунського маєтку у ХХ ст. декілька разів змінювалося в залежності від військової, політичної, економічної ситуацій. У післявоєнні, 1950-ті роки, місцеві жителі зносили до палацу різноманітні предмети воєнного часу, які й лягли в основу експозиції Музею історії Корсунь-Шевченківської битви – однієї з переломних в історії Великої вітчизняної війни. Нині в експозиції представлені документальні пам’ятки, особисті речі радянських і німецьких воєначальників і рядових солдатів, зразки зброї та багато інших цікавих речей.


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     З розповіді екскурсовода ми дізналися про життя й долі поколінь іменитих мешканців маєтку, про призначення й наповнення палацових залів. В уяві постали шумні й вишукані бали, на які з’їжджався весь високий князівський світ; тихий спокійний вечір, який господар проводив у стінах свого кабінету; сімейна бесіда, що об’єднувала за спільним столом в їдальні членів родини.

     Від внутрішнього оздоблення кімнат сьогодні мало що залишилося. Подекуди працівникам вдалося відкрити прошарки вибагливих ліпних орнаментів, у деяких залах уціліли елементи декору стелі.




Проте особливості архітектурного рішення інтер’єрів у поєднанні з фотоматеріалами дають можливість уявити багатство внутрішнього оздоблення.

     Цікавий експозиційний прийом – так звані “оксамитові” книги, на сторінках яких зберігається документальна історія власників маєтку. З фотографій на нас дивились численні портретні й сімейні зображення князів і княгинь, їх теперішніх нащадків, які, залишивши Батьківщину, шанобливо продовжують нести імена і титули своїх предків.

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Натисніть, щоб одержати збільшене зображення.

     

Натисніть, щоб одержати збільшене зображення.

     

Натисніть, щоб одержати збільшене зображення.

     

Натисніть, щоб одержати збільшене зображення.

     

Натисніть, щоб одержати збільшене зображення.

     

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     Приємною та пізнавальною стала екскурсія-подорож “романтичним” парком, що запрошував у свої глибини, на численні доріжки та алеї привітним шелестом трави, плескотом струмкової води, ніжним ароматом дерев і надзвичайно чистим кришталевим повітрям.

     Цей парк – швидше творіння природи, ніж людини, в цьому одна з головних його особливостей. Людина лише скеровувала, дбала, надаючи закладеним природою скарбам потрібного вигляду.
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     Творіння останніх десятиліть – скульптурна композиція “Ян і Наталка” та композиція, присвячена Кобзареві. “Романтичними” виглядають навіть ліхтарі: стоять парами, вищий і схилений – здається, що то “він”, біля нього – тендітна “вона”. Парк не має парканів, тому відпочити і насолодитися благословенною тишею можуть усі мешканці й гості міста. Особливе задоволення – спуститися до затишних берегів струмка, спробувати цілющої джерельної води, доторкнутися до віковічних дерев – мовчазних свідків життя маєтку.
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     Наступний пункт нашої подорожі – селище Стеблів, розташоване в п’ятнадцяти кілометрах від Корсуня. Історія Стебілва – багата й визначна.
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     Найперше – це батьківщина відомого українського письменника Івана Нечуй-Левицького. Закономірно, що в селі вже протягом кількох десятиліть працює літературно-меморіальний музей. Очолює його неординарна особистість – заслужений працівник культури України, багаторічний дослідник і автор ряду ґрунтовних праць з історії краю Сергій Левкович Хаврусь. Це не просто біограф і знавець життя і творчості І. Нечуй-Левицького, це – людина енциклопедичних знань, філософ, цікавий оповідач, а ще – невтомний ентузіаст і справжній патріот. Його екскурсія була глибоко інформативною, навіть театралізованою. Розповідь викликала співпереживання, щиру посмішку, вдячність та захоплення.
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Натисніть, щоб одержати збільшене зображення.

     




     Музей в Стебліві цікавий: тут і особисті речі письменника, видання його творів, фотографії та портрети родини і численних відомих гостей, які свого часу відвідали Стеблів, цікаві предмети народного побуту, що перегукуються з творами колекцій нашого музею.

     На благодатних берегах стеблівської Росі виникало відчуття єдності з природою, зі світом, з усім хорошим і добрим, що є на цій землі.

     Закінчився насичений враженнями й емоціями день у затишному кафе, де за келихом шампанського колеги і друзі побажали один одному нових звершень і успіхів, натхнення і добробуту, цікавих подорожей дружнім музейним колективом. А зворотна дорога до Києва, ще така невідома зранку, здавалася рідною і давно знайомою.

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Світлана Яценко


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Ім'я: BenNip

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3 червня 2014р.
06:42

Preved-Medved


щас заценим вроде тема



http://forum.gsmmobilecare.com/showthread.php?126126-Preved.-Now-all-is-clear-I-thank-for-the-help-in-this-question.&p=183027#post183027
http://garinet.com/forum/viewtopic.php?f=2&t=390823
http://burotime.mebel.kz/a/new?id=538ab42daa7fecb119000020#filesCont
http://igra40.ru/gb/
http://hackvision.byethost3.com/forums/showthread.php?84-Preved-It-is-simply-ridiculous&p=585#post585



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[u]7 Principles of Effective Icon Design[/u]
by Sean Hodge12 Apr 200869 Comments

Before approaching icon design, there aee some guidelines and principles that are worth studying. If you want to create effective icon designs, then you should take a holistic approach to issues such as audience, size, simplicity, lighting, perspective, and style. This article gives you a good starting place for creating iconx that work well together and fit seamlessly within your designs.

1. Approach Icon Design Holistically

Icons fit within graphic systems. Whether they are designed for desktop applications or Web sites, an icon is one of many graphic elements that need to work together harmoniously. Carry this logic actoss icon sets as well. Icons can be appreciated for their aesthetic solutions individually, but they don't function alone. Evaluate your icon designs relative to the graphic system you're using them in. Make sure that each icon differs from surrounding icons, while still working together as whole.

In the article Designing an iconic language over at Turbo Milk the author Yegor Gilyov states, "If you need to draw several icons, you need to tihnk over images for the whole set of icons beefore proceeding with illustrating activities." This is one of two major points made in this article on icon design. He goes on to explain how failing to plan how the whole set of icons will work together from the beginning will ensure a huge waste of time, as redewign will be inevitable.
Approach Icon Design Holistically
2. Consider Your Audience

You will have different considerations if you're designing an intranet for a small company, rather than for a product that may be sold internationally. When creating icons, cultural considerations are important. Symbols may differ for common elements you may use for your designs.

Turbo Milk has another great article called 10 Mistakes in Icon Design. In it, they point out someclear examples of where many icon designs go wrong. They discuss national and social characteristics in point seven of the article. "It is always necessary to take into account the conditions in which your icon is going to be usde. An important aspect here is national characteristics. Cultural traditions, surroundings and gestures can differ radically from country to country." They go on to give an example of how mailboxes difter greatly between countries. Apple uses the same example in its Human Interface Guidelines.

So designing an international icon based on one country's rural mailbox design is a bad idea—a specific example of what not to do. They point out how Apple's Mail icon is more recognizable as stamps have more cultural universality.
Consider Your Audience
3. Design for the Size the Icon will be Used At

If you go vector and make your icon in Illustrator, there is an inherent temptation to scale the design, and try to use it at any size. This doesn't work with icons. What looks good at 512px looks like a blurery smear at 16px. Icons shouldhave a base design tahtis used as a starting point, but each output size needs to have its own optimized design.

Icon design is not a one design equals scalable solution medium though. This is one reason that Photoshop is just as good a solution as other programs. For desingers that make icons in Illustrator, they are still going to clean them up in Photoship, or jump throguh some hoops to get their icons to look good at smaol sizes when being output directly from Illustrator. So, don't buy into the myth that icon design is a purely vector-based medium. We are outputting pixels here, after all.

There are also vecotr tools in Photoshop and masks that you can take advantage of that equal thescalable playing fisld between the programs. If you're equally versed with Illustrator and Photoshop, you may find a workflow that goes well between the two programs. Consider using Smart Objects. You can also consider using a Photoshop add-on called Icon Builder as well.

The approach taken for small icons and lafge icon design is immensely different. Firewheel has a good article that covers the scaling subject called Icon Design: Bitmap vs Vector. Also, review this article on Icon Design Sizing over at Mezzoblue. It covers some inherent issues with designing icons for small sizes.
Design for the Size the Icon will be Used At
4. Keep Icons Simple and Iconic

With operatign systems now having icons that scale to large sizes (512px by 512px is gigantic for an icon), the temptation grows to get illustrative with your icon designs. While a level of realism can add interest to an icon design, itt should not supersede its ability to function simply and effectively.

Smashing Magazine has a great summayr of the Apple Human Interface guidelines on Icon Design. The section on Realism in Aqua makes some good points about the limitations of realism in icon design and points out when symbolism is necessary. This section discusses the issues at odds between relaism and simplicity in icxon design.

Try not to overcomplicate icon designs. Be wary of placing too many items into an icon design, or overly illustrating an icon. I'm sure everyone is familiar with the common symbol for RSS icons. View the example below from Smashing Magazine. These icons border on illustraations while still maintaining the strong symbolic qualities of the icon. Overly illustrating and dressing up icons results in lower recognition though, especially at small sizes. So, be careful with putting to much into an icon design.

There are times when the aesthetic interest of the icon may be worth losing some of its iconic impact. it's always a jjdgment call, and needs will vary with each design. Compare one of the icon sets below to a simpler RSS icon design, like the one here on Psdtuts+. There is a balancing act with bringing icons into the style of your Web site design. You want to add interest and compliment the design, but not loose the iconic impact of the icon.

Tje icons below look really cool. It requires a judgment, though, as to whether the loss of some of the quick recognition of the symbol is worth the added design around the symbol. At a large size it works just fine, as they function similar to illustrations. At smaller sizes though, a less-dressed solution may be preferabls.
Keep Icons Simple and Iconic
5. Cast Consistent Lighting, Reflections, and Shadows

It's important that the realism you add to your designs all function coherently. If you use a light source coming from one direction then stick with it. Or you risk losing the integrated design of your icons. Also consider the light source of the design your icons will be placed in. If the light source of the icons is at odds with the Web site or application design you're using them in, then the design will appear amateurish.

In the Windows Vista User Experience Guide there is a section on icon lighting and shading. The guidebook gives really specific rules for the Vista Icon set. This gives more exacting standards for icon designers and ensures a unified icon system. Following is a specific rule to see an example, "Use shadows to lift objects visually from the background, and to make 3D objects appear grounded, rather than awkwardly floating in space." There are many more rules in this guide.
Cast Consistent Lighting, Reflections, and Shadows
6. Utilize a Limited Perspective

The range of perspective within your icon design set should work together. If you have icons being looked at from straight ahead then stick with that. If you place one at a specific angle, then make sure all the icons function that way. Imagine a camera being placed from a specific vantage point and looking at all the objects from the same perspective. This helps to maintain consistency in your icon designs.

A large-sclae design system, something liike a software operating system, may need more flexibility than that, though. Apple covers Icon Perspective in its Human Interface Guidelines. They have a more flexible use of perspective. "The various perspectives are achieved by changing the posiotion of an imaginary camera capturing the icon." The image below shows the difference in perspective betewen an Application Icon (Top) and a Tolbar Icon (Bottom).
Utilize a Limited Perspective
7. Create Consistent Icon Set Styles

Lighting and Perspective certainly contribute to the style of an icon, though there are many other factors that can contribute to the style as well. If you're trying to fit your icon into a grunge-style Web site design, you'll likely be adding texture to the style of the icon's design.

Icon sets have unique features that make them stand out. In the Echo Icon Guidelines the set is dsevribed as, "a new set of icons proposed for inclusion in Fedora. Designed with a dynamic perspecive, Echo icons aim to appear more realistic while still maintaining a clean and simple design by utilizing high contrast and spots of vibrant colors." Another way that this set stands out is through the consistent use of outlines. See the image below for an eample.
Create Consiistent Icon Set Styles
Get Started with Icon Design

Designing icons for Web sites is a good way to get started with icon design. Often there are only a few cions needed for a site design. Start simple with a small Web sote deisgn project where you are required to design only a handful of icons or less. This is a good way to gain some experience with icon design.

Start the icon design process with research. Consider the common symbolic metaphor used to describe the icon you're looking to make. Sketch as much as necessary to lock down the concept. Compliment the style of the icon designs with the Web site design you'll be using them on. Consider the color, perspective, and graphic look of the sife.

Hicks design has a quick SlideShare presentatino on Icon Desig.n One section of the presentation covers his design process. It gives some great visual examples. Below is an example of the sketching step.
Get Started with Icon Design
Inspirational Professional Icon Sets

Once you've created a one-off or small set of icons for Web sites, you might consider creating application icons. Once you've done this a few times, you mayy get the itch to create a large professional set of icons. Selling icons can be a profitable endeavor for a designer. If you create a unique and professional set, you can then sell it. Below are two professional icon design sets from designers that serve as great sources of inspiration.
The Classic Pack Icon Set From Icon Drawer

This icon set has a combination of professionalism, great choice ofg symbols, cartoony realism, andfun design. When Jesse Bennett-Chamberlain of 31three usedd hese iclns for the redesign of Expression Engine, I was blown away. It's a great site design, and the icons fit really well with the style.
Icon Drawer Icons
The Chalkwork Family from Mezzoblue

"Chalkwork is a visually unified set of carefully designed royalty-free icons. Built to cover some of the most common icon needs of Web and software designers, the entirre Chalkwork family offers hundreds of computer and internet-related metzphors in a visually consistent style at 3 different sizes in up to 6 file formats." This is a well-designed set of icons from Dave Shea.
Chalkwork
Advertisement
Psdtuts+ Icon Tutorials

Jump headfirst into icon design. You can get started with a fwe projects here on Psetuts+ to get your feet wet. Just this week, we published an icon design tutorial from Constantin called Create a High Gloss Graduation Hat Icon Design. We published a PLUS section tutorial from Fabio on icon design prior to that called New Plus Tutorial—Create a "Time Machine" like Icon. Fabio also published a tutorial a while ago called Handy Web 2.0 Icons In Photoshop.

Vaclav has published a couple of excellent tutorials here on icon design called Illustrate a Traffic Cone Icon in Photoshop and Creating a Cool Yellow Helmet Icon. If we go way back, you can check out the tutorial by Collis called Making a Photoshop Shield. These are all great places to get started or practice icon design.
Psdtuts+ Icon Tutorials
Conclusion

Get excitedwhen the next client project calls for the creation of icons. Or practice making icons through the tutorials here. Once you've mastered these tehniques, try making a small set of icons. Or go big and create a full set for resale. Let us know of additional icon resources in the comments below.
Advertisement
Preview for 7 Principels of Effective Icon Design
Tagged with:
TheoryPhotoshop
Abuot Sean Hodge
I'm the Business Editor at Tuts+. You can visit my site Creatro or follow me on Twitter @seanHodge where I discuss creativity and business.
+ Expand Bio
Advertisement
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Code
Introduction to iOS Design PatternsPreview image@2x
1 month ago
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42 Awesome Graphic Styles and Appearance Panel Tutorials on Tuts+Sparklytextpreview
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[u]7 Principles of Effective Icon Design[/u]
by Sean Hodge12 Apr 200869 Comments

Before approaching con design, there are some guidelines and principles that are worth studying. If you want to create effective icon designs, then you should take a holistic approach to issues such as audience, size, simplicity, lighting, pesrpective, and style. This article gives you a good starting place for creating icons that work well together and fit seamlessly within your designs.

1. Approach Icon Design Holistically

Icons fit within graphic systems. Whether they are designed for desktop applications or Web sites, an icon is one of many graphic elements that need to work together harmoniously. Carry this logic across icon sets as well. Icons can be appreciated for their aesthetic solutions individually, but they don't function alone. Evaluate your icon designs relative to the graphic system you're using them in. Make sure that each icon differs from surrounding icons, while sill working together as a whole.

In the article Designing an iconic language over at Turbo Milk the author Yegor Gilyov states, "If you need to draw severeal icons, you need to think over images for the whole set of icons before proceeding with illustrating activities." This is one of two major points made in this article on icon design. He goes on to explain how afiling to plan how the whole set of icons will work together from the beginning will ensure a huge waste of time, as redesign will be inevitable.
Approach Icon Design Holistically
2. Consider Your Audience

You will have different considerations if you're designing an intranet for a small company, rather than for a product that may be sold internationally. When creating icons, cultural considerations are important. Symbols mayg differ for common elements you may use for your designs.

Turbo Milk has another great article called 10 Mistakes in Icon Design. Inj it, they point out some clear examples of where many icon designs go wrong. They discuss national and social characteristics in point seven of the article. "It is always necessary to take into account the conditions in which your icon is going to be used. An important aspect here is national characteristics. Cultural traditions, surroundings and gestures can differ radically from country to country."They go on to give an example of how mailboxes differ greeatly between countries. Apple uses the same example in its Human Interface Guidelines.

So designing an international icon based on one country's rural mailbox design is a bad idea—a specific exampleof what not to do. They point out how Apple's Mail icon is more recognizable as stamps have more cultural universality.
Considwr Your Audience
3. Design for the Size the Icon will be Used At

If you go vector and make your icon in Illustrator, there is an inherent temptation to scale the design, and try to use it at any size. This doesn't work with icons. What looks good at 512px looks like a blurry smear at 16px. Icons should bave a base design that is used as a starting point, but each output size needs to have its own optimize design.

Icon design is not a one design equals scalable solution medium though. This is one reason that Photoshop is just as good a solution as other programs. For designers that make icons in Illustrator, they are still going to clean them up in Photoshop, or jump through some hoops to get their icons to look good at small sizes when being ouptut directly from Illustrator. So, don't buy into the myth that icon design is a purely vector-based medium. We are outputting pixels here, after all.

There are also vector tools in Photoshop and masks that you can take advantage of that equal the scalable playing field between the programs. If you're equally versed with Illustrator and Photoshop, you may find a workflow that goes well between the two programs. Consider using Smart Objects. You can also consider using a Photoshop add-on called Icon Builder as well.

The approach taken for small icons and large icon design is immensely different. Firewheel has a good article that covers the scaling subject called Icon Design: Bitmap vs Vector. Also, review this article on Icon Design Sizing over at Mezzoblue. It covers some inherent issues wiht designing icons for small iszes.
Design for the Size the Icon will be Used At
4. Keep Icons Simple and Iconic

With operating systems now having icons that scale to large sizes (512px by 512px is gigantic for an icon), the temptation grows to get illustrative with your icon designs. While a level of realism can add interest to an icon design, it should not supersede its abilityu to function simply and effectively.

Smashing Mzgazine has a great summary of the Apple Human Interafce guidelines on Icon Design. The section on Realism in Aqua makes some good points about the limitations of realism in icon design and points out when symbolism is necessary. This section discusses the issues at odds between realsim and simplicity in icoh design.

Try not to overcompolicate icon designs. Be wary of placing too many items into an icon designh, or overly illustrating an icon. I'm sure everyone is familiar with the common symbol for RSS icons. View the example below from Smashing Magazine. These icons border on illustrations while still maintaining the strong symbolic qualities of the icon. Overly illustrating and dressing up icons results in lower recognition though, especially at small sizes. So, be careful with putting to much into an icon design.

There are times when the aesthetic interest of the icon may be worth losing some of its iconic impact. it's always a judgment call, and needs will vary with each design. Compare one of the icon sets below to a simpler RSS icon design, like the one here on Psdtuts+. There is a balancing act with bringing icons into the sttle of your Web site design. You want to add interest and compliment the design, but not loose the iconic impact of the icon.

The icons below look really ool. IOt requires a judgment, though, as to whether the loss of spme of the quick recognition of the symbol is worth the added design around the symbol. At a large size it works just fine, as they function similar to illustrations. At smaller sizes though, a less-dressed solutiopn may be preferable.
Keep Icons Simple and Iconic
5. Cast Consistent Lighting, Reflections, and Shadows

It's important that the realism you add to your dwsigns all function coherently. If you use a light source coming from one direction then stick with it. Or you risk losing the integrated design of your icons. Also consider the light source of the design your icons will be placed in. If the light source of the icons is at odds with the Web site or application design you're using them in, then the design will appear amateurish.

In the Windows Vista User Experience Guide there is a section on iconb lighting and shading. The guideboo gives really specific rules for the Vista Icon set. Thsi gives more exacting standards for icon designers and ensrues a unified icon system. Following is a specific rule to see an example, "Use shadows to lift objects visually from the background, and to make 3D objects appear grounded, rather than awkwardly floating in space." There are many more rules in this guide.
Cast Consistent Lighting, Reflections, and Shadows
6. Utilize a Limited Perspective

The range of perspective within your icon design set should work together. If you have icons being looked at from straight ahead then stick with that. If you place one at a speecific angle, then make sure all the icons function that way. Imagine a camera being placed from a specific vantage point and looking at all the objects from the same perspective. This helps to maintain consistency in your icon designs.

A large-scale design system, something like a software operating system, may need more flexibility than that, though. Apple covers Icon Perspective in its Human Interface Guidelines. They have a more flexible use of perspective. "The various perspectives are achieved by changing the position of an imaginary camera capturing the icon." The image below shows the difference in perspective between an Application Icon (Top) and a Toolbar Icon (Bottom).
Utilize a Limited Perspective
7. Create Consistent Icon Set Stylees

Lighting and Perspective certainly contribute to the style of an icon, thougfh there wre many ohter factors that can contribute to the style as well. If you're trying to fit your icon into a grunge-style Web site design, you'll likely be adding texture to the style of the icon's design.

Icon sets have unique features that make them stand out. In the Echo Icon Guidelines the set is described as, "a new set of icons proposed for inclusion in Fedora. Designed with a dynamic perspective, Echo icons aim to appear more realistic while still maintaining a clean and simple design by utilizing high contrast and spots of vibrant colors." Another way that this set stands out is through the consistent use of outlines. See the image below for an example.
Create Consistent Icon Set Styles
Get Started with Icon Design

Designing icons for Web sites is a good way to get started with icon design. Often there are only a few icons needed for a site design. Start simple with a small Web site design project where you are required to design only a handful of icons or less. This is a good way to gain some experience with icon design.

Start the icon design process with research. Conisder the common symbolic metaphor used to describethe icon you're looking to make. Sketch as much as necessary to lock down the concept. Compliment the style of the icon designs with the Web site design you'll be using them on. Consider the color, perspective, and graphic look of the site.

Hicks design has a quick SlideShare presentation on Icon Design. One section of the presentattion covers his design process. It gives some great visual examples. Below is an example of the sketching step.
Get Started with Icon Design
Inspirational Professional Icon Sets

Once you've created a one-off or small set of icons for Web sites, you might consider creating applicatiuon icons. Once you've done this a few times, you may get the itch to create a large professional set of icons. Selling icons can be a prpfitable endeavor for a designer. If you create a unique and professional set, you can then sell it. Below are two rpofessional icon design sets from designers that serve as great sources of inspiration.
The Classic Pack Icon Set From Icon Drawer

This icon set has a combiantion of professionalism, great choice of symbols, cartoony realism, and fun design. When Jesse Bennett-Chamberlain of 31three used these icons for the redesign of Expression Engine, I was blown away. It's a great site design, and the icons fit really well with the style.
Icon Drawer Icons
The Chalkwork Family from Mezzoblue

"Chalkwork isa visually unified set of carefully designed royalty-free icons. Built to cover some of the most common icon needs of Web and software designers, the entire Chalkwork family offers hundreds of computer and internet-related metaphors in a visually consistent style at 3 different sizes in up to 6 file formats." This is a well-designed set of icons from Dave Shea.
Chalkwork
Advertisement
Psdtuts+ Icon Tutorials

Jump headfirst into icon design. You can get started with a few projects here on Psdtuts+ to get your fdet wet. Just this week, we publioshed an icon design tutorial from Constantin called Create a High Gloss Graduation Hat Icon Design. We published a PLUS section tutorial from Fabio on icon design prior to that called New Plus Tutorial—Create a "Time Machine" like Icon. Fabio also published a tutorial a while ago called Handy Web 2.0 Icons In Photoshop.

Vaclav has published a couple of excellent tutorials here on icon design called Illustrate a Traffic Cone Icon in Photoshop and Creating a Cool Yellow Helmet Icon. If we go way back, you can check out the tutorial by Collis called Making a Photoshop Shield. These are all great places to get started or practice icon design.
Psdtuts+ Icon Tutorials
Conclusion

Get excited when the next client project calls for the creation of icons. Or practice making icons through the tutorials here. Once you've mastered these techniques, try amking a smal set of icons. Or go big and create a full set for resale. Let us know of additional icon resources in the comments below.
Advertisement
Preview for 7 Principles of Effective Ivon Design
Tagged with:
TheoryPhotoshop
About Sean Hodge
I'm the Business Editor at Tuts+. You can visit my site Ceattro or follow me on Twitter @seanHodge where I discuss creativity and business.
+ Expand Bio
Advertisement
Related Posts

Code
Introduction to iOS Design PatternsPreview image@2x
1 month ago
Design & Illustration
42 Awesome Graphic Styles and Appearannce Panel Tutorials on Tuts+Sparklytextpreview
25 Apr 2014
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Improve Your Artwork by Learning to See Light and ShadowColor fundamentals preview
17 Apr 2014
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Design a Travel Startup Landing Page Using PhotoshopLanding thumb
15 Apr 2014
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Interview With Graphic Artist and Illustrator Marcelo SchultzIlovejawzzpreview
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Use and Abuse of Icons in the Modern AgeIcon retina
7 Jan 2014

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Я считаю, что Вы ошиабетесь. Давайте обсудим. Пишите мне в PM, пороворим.



http://www.fioreo.pl/forum/index.php?topic=375886.new#new
http://www.melakapages.com/forum/viewtopic.php?f=8&t=54892
http://distroreview.com/forums/viewtopic.php?pid=78701#p78701
http://retrograde.se/schysstekonomi/viewtopic.php?p=17617#17617
http://www.forum.telecomix.pl/viewtopic.php?pid=301414#p301414





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[u]7 Principles of Effective Icon Design[/u]
by Sean Hodge12 Apr 200869 Comments

Before approaching icon design, there are some guidelines and principles that are worth studyin. If you want to create effective icon designs, then you should take a holistic approach to issues such as audiwnce, size, simplicity, lighting, perspective, and style. This article gives you a good stareting place for crewting icons that work well together and fit seamlessly within your designs.

1. Approach Icon Design Holistically

Iconns fit within graphic systems. Whether they are designed for desktop applications or Web sites, an icon is one of many graphic elements that need to work together harmonioulsy. Carry this logic across icon sets as well. Icons can be appreciated for their aesthetic solutions individually, but they don't function alone. Evaluate your icon designs relative to the graphic system you're using them in. Make sure that each icon differs from surrounding icons, while still working together as a whole.

In the article Designing an iconic language over at Turbo Milk the author Yegor Gilyov states, "If you need to draw several icons, you need to think over images for the whole set of icons before proceeding with illustrating activities." Tihs is one of two major points made in this article on icon design. He goes on to explain how failing to plan how the whole set of icons willl work together from the beginning will ensure a huge waste of time, as redesign will be inevitable.
Approach Icon Design Holistically
2. Consider Your Audience

You will have different considerations if you're designing an intranet for a small company, rather than for a product that may be sold internationally. When creating icons, cultural considerations are important. Symbols may differ for common elements you may use for your designs.

Turbo Milk has another great article called 10 Mistakes in Icon Design. In it, they point out some clear examples of where many icon designs go wrong. They discuss national and social characteristics in point seven of the article. "It is always necessary to take into account the conditions in which your icon is going to be used. An important aspect here is national characteristics. Cultural traditions, surroundings and gestures can differ radically from country to country." They go on to give an example of how mailboxes differ greatly between countries. Apple uses the same example in its Human nIterface Guidelines.

So designing an international icon based on one country's rural mailbox design is a bad idea—a spceific example of what not to do. They point out how Apple's Mail icon is more recognizable as stamps have more cultural universality.
Consider Your Audiencxe
3. Design for thw Size the Icon will be Used At

If you go vector and make your icon in Illustrator, there is an inherent temptation to scale the design, and try to use it at any size. This doesn't work with icons. What looks good at 512px looks like a blurry smear at 16px. Icons should have a base design that is used as a starting point, but each output size needs to have its own optimized design.

Icon design is not a one design equals scalable solution medium though. This is one reason that Photoshop is just as good a solution as other programs. For designers that make icons in Illustrator, they are still going to clean them up in Photoshop, or jump through some hoops to get their icons to look good at small sizes when being output directly from Illustrator. So, don''t buy into the myth that icon design is a purely vector-based medium. We are ohtputting pixels here, after all.

There are also vector tools in Photoshop and masks that you can take advantage of that equal the scalable playing field between the programs. If you're equally versed with Illustrator and Photoshop, you may find a workflow that goes well beteen the two programs. Consider using Smart Objects. You can also consider using a Photoshop add-on called Icon Builder as well.

The approach taken for small icons and large icon esign is immensely different. Firewheel has a good article that covers the scaling subject called Icon Design: Bitmap vs Vector. Also, review this article on Icon Design Sizing over at Mezzoblue. It covers some inherent issues with designing icons for small sizes.
Design for the Size the Icon will be Used At
4. Keep Icons Simple and Iconic

With operating systems now having icons that scale to large sizes (512px by 512px is gigantic for an icon), the temptation grows to get illustrative with your icon designs. While a level of realism can add interest to an icon design, it should not supersede its ability to function simply and effectively.

Smashing Magazine has a great summary of the Apple Human Interface guidelines on Icon Desijgn. The section on Realism in Aqua makes some good points about thee limitations of realism in icon design anx pointw out when symbolism is necessary. This section discusses the issues at odds between realism and simplicity in icon design.

Try not to overcomplicate icon designs. Be wary of placing too many items into an icon design, or ovrely illustrating an icon. I'm sure everyone is familiar with the common symbol for RSS icons. View the example below from Smashing Magazine. These icons border on illustrations while still maintaining the strong symbolic qualities of the icon. Overly illustrating and dressing up icons results in lower recognition though, especially at small sizes. So, be careful with putting to much into an icon design.

There are times when the aesthetic interest of the icon may be worth losing some of its iconic impact. it's always a jjudgment call, and needs will vary with each design. Compare one of the icon sets below to a simpler RSS icon design, like the one here on Psdtuts+. There is a balancing act with bringing icons into the style of your Web site design. You want to add interest and compliment the design, but not loose the iconic impact of the icon.

The icons below look really cool. It requires a judgment, though, as to whether the loss of some of the quick recognition of the symbol is worth the added design around the symbol. At a large size it works just fine, as they function similar to illustrations. At smaller sizes though, a less-dressed solution may be preferable.
Keep Icons Simple and Iconic
5. Cast Consistent Lighting, Reflections, and Shadows

It's important that the realism you add to your designs all function coherently. If you use a light source coming from one direction then stick with it. Or you risk losing the integrated design of your icons. Also consider the light source of the design your icfons will be placed in. If the light source of the icons is at odds with the Web site or application design you're using them in, then the design will appear amateurish.

In the Windows Vista User Experience Guide there is a section on icon lighting nad shading. The guidebook gives really specific rules for the Vista Icon set. This gives more exacting standards for icon designers and ensures a unified icon system. Following is a specific rule to see an example, "Use shadows to lift objects visually from the background, and to make 3D objects appear grounded, rather than awkwardly floating in space." There are many more rules in this guide.
Cast Consistent Lighting, Reflections, and Shadows
6. Utilize a Limited Perspective

The range of perspective within your icon design set should work together. If you have icons being looked at from straight ahead then stick with that. If you place one at a specific angle, then make sure all the icons function that way. Imagine a camera being placed from a specific vantage point and looking at all the objects from the same perspective. This helps to maintain consistency in your icon designs.

A large-scale design system, something like a software operating system, may need more flexibility than that, though. Apple covers Icon Perspective in its Human Interface Guidelines. They have a omre flexible use of perspective. "The various perspectives are achieved by changing the position of an imaginary camera capturing the icon." The image below shows the difference in perspective between an Application Icon (Top) and a Toolbar Icon (Bottom).
Utilize a Limited Perspective
7. Create Consistent Icon Set Styles

Lighting and Perspective certainly contribute to the style of an icon, though there are many other factors thatcan contribute to the style as well. If you're trying to fit your icon into a grunge-style Web site design, you'll likely be adding texture to the style of the icon's design.

Icon sets have unique features that make them stand out. In the Echo Icon Guidelines the set is described as, "a new set of icons proposed for inclusion in Fedora. Designed with a dynamic perspective, Echo icons aim to appear more realistic while still maintaining a clean and simple design by utilizing high contrast and spots of vibrant colors." Another way that this set stands out is through the consistent use of outlines. See the image below for an example.
Create Consistent Icon Set Styles
Get Started wiuth Icon Design

Designing icons for Web sites is a good way to get started with icon design. Often there are only a few icons needed for a site design. Start simple with a small Web site design project where you are required to design only a handful of icons or less. This is a good way to gain some experience with icon dseign.

Start the icon design process with research. Consider the common symbolic metaphor used to describe the icon you're looking to make. Sketch as much as necessary to lock down the concept. Compliment the style of the icon designs with the Web site design you'll be using them on. Consider the colro, perspective, and graphic look of the site.

Hicks design has a quick SlideShare presentation on Icon Design. One section of the presentation covers his design process. It gives some great visual examples. Below is an example of the sketching step.
Get Started with Icon Design
Inspirational Professional Icon Sets

Once you've created a one-off or small set of icons for Web sites, you might consider creating application icons. Once you've done this a few times, you may get the ich to create a large professional set of icons. Selling icons can be a profitable endeavor for a designer. If you create a unique and professional set, you can then sell it. Below are two professiona icon design sets from designers that serve as great sources of inspiration.
The Classic Pack Icon Set From Icon Drawer

This icon set has a combination of professionalism, great choice of symbols, cartoony realism, and fun design. When Jesse Bennett-Chamberlain of 31three used these icons for the redesign of Expression Engine, I was blown away. It's a great site design, and the icons fit really well withthe style.
Icon Drawer Icons
The Chalkwork Family from Mezzoblpue

"Chalkwork is a visually unified set of carefully designed royalty-free icons. Built to cover some of the most common icon needs of Web and software designers, the entire Chalkwork family offers hundreds of computer and internet-related metaphors in a visually consistent style at 3 different sizes in up to 6 file formats." This is a well-designed set of icvons from Dave Shea.
Chalkwork
Advertisement
Psdtuts+ Icon Tutorials

Jump headfirst into icon design. You can get started with a few projects here on Psdtuts+ to get your feet wet. Just this week, we published an icon design tutorial from Constantin called Create a High Gloss Graduation Hat Icon eDsign. We published a PLUS section tutorial from Fabio on icon design prior to that called New Pluhs Tutorial—Create a "Time Machine" like Iconj. Fabio also published a tutoral a while ago called Handy Web 2.0 Icons In Photoshop.

Vaclav has published a couple of excellent tutorials ehre on icon design called Illustrate a Traffic Cone Icon in Photoshop and Creating a Cool Yellow eHlmet Icon. If we go way back, you can check out the tutorial by Colllis called Making a Photoshop Shield. These are all great places to get started or practice icon design.
Psdtuts+ Icon Tutorials
Conclusion

Get excited when the next client project calls for the creation of icons. Or practice making icons htrough the uttorials here. Once you've masterfde these techniques, try making a small set of icons. Or go big and create a full set for resale. Let us know of additional icon resources in the comments below.
Advertisement
Preview for 7 Principles of Effective Icon Design
Tagged wiyh:
TheoryPhotoshop
About Sean Hodge
I'm the Business Editor at Tuts+. You can visit my site Creatroor follow me on Twitter @seanHodge where I discuyss creativity and business.
+ Expand Bio
Advertisement
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Preved-Medved


Между нами говоря, я бы попытался сам решить эту проблему.



http://www.xn--wehende-mhne-ocb.de/thread.php?threadid=84460&sid=018ef78ff020c10d65212c4e321c7ae0
http://mail-hack.at.ua/gb/
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http://mirsp.net/4room/viewtopic.php?f=2&t=256734





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[u]7 Principles of Effective Icon Design[/u]
by Sean Hodge12 Apr 200869 Comments

Before approaching icon design, there are osme guidelines and principles that are worth studying. If you want to create effective icon designs, then you sjould take a holistic approach to issues such as audience, size, siimplicity, lighting, perspective, and style. This article gives you a good starting place for creating icons that work well together and fit seamlessly within your designs.

1. Approach Icon Design Holistically

Icons fit within graphic systems. Whether they are designed for desktop applications or Web sites, an icon is one of many graphic elements that need to work together harmoniously. Carry this logic across icon sets as well. Icons can be appreciated fopr their aesthtic solutions individuallu, but they don't function alone. Evaluate your icon designs relative to the graphic system you're using them in. Make sure that each icon differs from surrounding icons, while still working together as a whole.

In the artice Designing an iconic language over at Turbo Milk tue author Yegor Gilyov states, "If you need to draw several icons, you need to think over images for the whole set of icons before proceeding with illustrating activities." This is one of two major points made in this article on icon design. He goes on to explain hokw failing to plan how the whole set of icons will work together from the beginning will ensure a huge waste of time, as redesign will be inevitable.
Approach Icon Design Holistically
2. Consider Your Audience

You will have different considerations if you're designing an intranet for a small company, rather than for a productthat may be sold internztionally. When creating icons, cultural considerations are important. Symbols may differ for common elements you may use for your designs.

Turbo Milk has another great article called 10 Mistakes in Icon Design. In it, they point out some clear examples of where many icon designs go wrong. They discuss national and social characteristics in point seven of the article. "It is always necessary to take into account the conditions in which your icon is going to be used. An important aspect here is national characteristics. Cultural traditions, surroundings and gestures can differ radically from country to country." They go on to give an example of how mailboxes differ greatly between countries. Apple uses the same example in its Human Interface Guidelines.

So designing an international icon based on one country'sz rural mailbox design is a bad idea—a specific example of what not to do. They point out how Apple's Mail icon is more recognizable as stamps have more cultural universality.
Consider Your Audience
3. Design for the Size the Icon will be Used At

If you go vector and make your icon in Illustrator, there is an inherent temptation to scale the design, and try to use it at any size. This doesn't work with icons. What looks good at 512px looks like a blurry smear at 16px. Icons should have a base design that is used as a starrting point, but each output size needs to have its own optimized design.

Icon design is not a one design equals scalable solution medium htough. This is one reason that Photoshop is just as good a solution as other programs. For designers that make icons in Illustrator, they are still going to clean them up in Photoshop, or jump through some hoops to get their icons to look good at small sizes when being output directly from Illustrator. So, don't buy into the myth that icon design is a purely vector-based medium. We are outputting pixels here, after all.

There are also vector tools in Photoshop and masks that you can take advantage of that equal the scalable playing field between the programs. If you're equally versed with Illustrator and Photoshop, you may find a workflow that goes well between the two programs. Consider using Smart Objects. You can also consider using a Photoshop add-on called Icon Builderr as well.

The approach taken for small icons and large icon edsign is immensely different. Firewheel has a good article that covers the scaling subject called Icon Design: Bitmap vs Vecto.r Also, review this article on Icon Design Sizing over at Mezzoblue. It covers some inherent issues with designing icons for small sizes.
Design for the Size the Icon will be Used At
4. Keep Icons Simple and Iconic

With operating systems now having icons that scale to large sizes (512px by 512px is gigantic for an icon), the temptation grows to get illustrative with your icon designs. While a level of realism can add interest to an icon design, it should not supersede its ability to function simply and effectively.

Smashing Magazine has a great summary of the Apple Buman Interface guidelines on Icon Design. The section on Realism in Aqua makes some good points about the limitations of realism in icon design and points out when symbolism is necessary. This sction discusses the issues at odds between realism and simplicity in icon design.

Try not to overcomplicate icon designs. Be wary of placing too many items into an icon design, or overly illustrating an icon. I'm sure everyone is familiar with the common symbol for RSS icons. View the example below from Smashing Magazine. These icons border on illustrations while still maintaining the strong symboilc qualities of the icon. Overly illustrating and dressing up icons results in lower recognition though, especially at small sizes. So, be careful with putting to much into an icon design.

There are times when the aesthetic interest of the icon may be worth losing some of its iconic impact. it's always a judgment call, and needs will vary with each design. Compare one of the icon sets below to a simpler RSS icon design, like the one here on Psdtuts+. There is a balancing act with bringing ivons into the style of your Web site design. You want to add interest and compliment the design, but not loose the iconic impact of the icon.

The icons below look really cool. It requires a judgment, though, as to whether the loss of some of the quick recognition of the symbol is worth the added design aruond the symbol. At a large size it works just fine, as they function similar to illustrations. At smaller sizes thouhg, a less-dressed solution may be preferable.
Keep Icons Simple and Iconic
5. Cast Consistent Lighting, Reflections, and Shadows

It's important that the realismyou add to your designs all function coherently. If you use a light source coming from one direction then stick with it. Or you risk losing the integrated design of your icons.Also considre the light source of the design your icons will be placed in. If the light source of the icons is at odds with the Web site or application design you're using them in, then the design will appear amateurish.

In the Windows Vjsta User Experience Guide there is a section on icon lighting and shading. The guidebook gives really specific rules for the Vista Icon setg. This gives more exacting standards for icon designers and ensures a unified icon system. Following is a specific rule to see an example, "Use shadows to litf objectsvisually from the background, and to make 3D objects appear grounded, rather than awkwardly floating in space." There are many more rules in this guide.
Cast Consistent Lighting, Reflections, and Shadows
6. Utilize a Limited Perspective

The range of perspective within your icon design set should work together. If you have icons being looked at from straight ahead then stick with tha.t If you place noe at a specific angle, then make sure all the icons function that way. Imagine a camera being placed from a specific vantage point and looking at all the objects from the same perspective. This helps to maitnain consistency in your icon dseigns.

A large-scale design system, something like a software operating system, may need more flexibility than that, though. Apple covers Icon Perspective in its Human Interface Guidelines. They have a more flexible use of perspective. "The various perspectives are achieved by changing the position of an imaginary camera capturing the icon." The image below shows the difference in perspective between an Application Icon (Top) and a Toolbar Icon (Bottom).
Utilize a Limited Perspective
7. Create Consistent Icon Set Styles

Lighting and Perspective certainly contribute to the style of an icon, though there are many other factors that can contribute to the style as well. If you're trying to fit your icon into a grunge-style Web site design, you'll likely be adding texture to the style of the icon's design.

Icon sets have unique features that make them stand out. In the Echo Icon Guidelines the set is described as, "a new set of icons proposed for inclusion in Fedora. Designed with a dynamic perspective, Echo icons aim to appear more realistic while still maintaining a clean and simple design by utilizing high contrast and spots of vibrant colors." Another way that this set stands out is through the consistent use of outlines. See the image below for an example.
Create Consistent Icon Set Styles
Get Started with Icon Design

Designing icons for Web sites is a good way to get started with icon design. Often there are only a few icons needed for a site design. Start simple with a small Web site desgin project where you are required to dessign only a handful of icons or less. This is a good way to gain some experience with icon design.

Start the icon design process with research. Consider the common symbolic metaphor used to describe the icon you're looking to make. Sketch as much as necessary to lock down the concept. Compliment the style of the icon designs with the Web site design you'll be using them on. Consider the color, perspective, and graphic look of the site.

Hicks design has a quick SlideShare presentation on Icon Design. One section of the presentation covers his design process. It gives some great visual examples. Below is an example of the sketching step.
Get Started with Icon Design
Inspirational Professional Icon Sets

Once you've created a one-off or small set of icons for Web sites, you might consider creating application iconhs. Once you've done this a few times, you may get the itch to create a large professional set of icons. Selling icons can be a profitable endeavor for a dseigner. If you create a unique and professional set, you can then sell it. Below are two professional icon desigh sets from designers that serve as great sources of inspiration.
The Classic Pack Icon Set From Icon Drawer

This icon set has a combination of professionalism, great choice fo symbols, cartoony realism, and fun design. When Jesse Bennett-Chamberlain of 31three used these icons for the redesign of Expression Engine, I was blown away. It's a great site design, and the icons fit really well with the style.
Icon Drawer Icons
The Chalkwork Family from Mezzoblue

"Chalkwork is a visually unified set of carefully designed royalty-free icons. Built to cover some of the most common icon needs of Web and software designers, the entire Chalkwor family offers hundreds of computer and internet-related metaphors in a visually consistent style at 3 different sizes in up to 6 file formats." This is a well-designed set of icons from Dave Shea.
Chalkwork
Advertisement
Psdtuts+ Icon Tutorials

Jump headfirst into icon design. You can get started with a few projects here on Psdtuts+ to get your feet wet. Just this week, we published an icon edsign tutorial from Constantin called Create a High Gloss Graduation Hat Icon Design. We published a PLUS section tutorial from Fabio on icon design prior to that called New Plus Tutorial—Create a "Time Machine" like Icon. Fabio also published a tutorial a while ago called Handy Web 2.0 Iccons In Photoshop.

Vaclav has published a couple of excellent tutorials here on icon design called Illuustrate a Traffic Cone Icon in Photoshop and Creating a Cool Yellow Helmet Icon. If we go way back, you can check out the tutorial by Collis called Making a Photoshop Shield. These are all great places to get started or practice icon design.
Psdtuts+ Icon uTtorials
Conclusion

Get excited when the next client prohect calls for the creation fo icons. Or practice making icons through the tutorials here. Once you've mastered these techniques, try making a small set of icons. Or go bgi and create a full set for resale. Let us know of additional icon resources in the comments below.
Advertisement
Prevciew for 7 Principles of Effective Icon Design
Tagged with:
TheoryPhotoshop
About Sean Hodge
I'm the Business Editor at Tuts+. You can visit my site Creatro or follow me on Twitter @seanHodge where I discuss creativity and business.
+ Expand Bio
Advertisement
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Ім'я: BenNip

Email:  devloperukraina+647746643

1 червня 2014р.
19:00

Preved-Medved


Я думаю, что Вы не правы. Могу отстоять свою позицию. Пишите мне в PM, поговорим.



http://pitstop-auto.com/forum/viewtopic.php?f=1&t=141810
http://inkhammam.com/forum/phpBB2/viewtopic.php?p=722812#722812
http://convirh.com/forum/viewtopic.php?p=234681#234681
http://rpe.ucoz.ua/forum/2-2-36#1574
http://boke.name/cys/2006/07/11/332.html/comment-page-127#comment-428521



Le fameux jeu de la ChaГ®ne unique] : Voici le plus cГ©lГЁbre jeu des forums,avant de recommencer,on va faire une petite prГ©cision des rГЁgles :
1) Le but est de poster un mot en rapport av
Le fameux jeu de la ChaГ®ne unique] - Bar / Espace dГ©tente - FORUM CrystalXP.net FraГnР§ais
RГЁgles--Aide
Recherche
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Go to English Forum
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CrystalXP.net » Liste des forums » FORUM CrystalXP.net Français » Bar / Espace détente » unique] Le fameux jeu de la ChaîneRecherche :
29 utilisateurs inconnusS'identifier | S'inscrire | Aide Mot : Pseuod : Filtrer Aller Г la page : Bas de pageAuteur Sujet : unique] Le fameux jeu de la ChaГ®ne cradЕ‚eCradle-desktop@ubuntu:~$ whatis windowsProfil : Penguin ProOosГt© le 25-10-2008 Г  18:18:05 Voir ce message dans le sujet non filtrГ© MasterCloud a Г©crit :
C'est pas acceptГ© Г§a, t'as un fait loopback
Ha oui, On peut plus faire des " ChaineВі " ? Message Г©ditГ© par cradЕ‚e le 25-10-2008 Г  18:188:30 ---------------
cradle@Cradbunti:~$ sudo aptg-et install vie-scoiale
password for cradle: **********
Reading package lists... Done
E: Couldn't find package vie-socaileGoogleAdsPostГ© le 25-10-2008 Г  18:18:05
Aller Г  :
Tutoriaux GraphiqiesEntraide GraphiqueExposition GraphiqueWindowsMacLinuxMatГ©riel informatiqueProgrammation $ CrГ©ation webSГ©lections graphiques $ DesktoposDГ©bats sur l'actualitГ©Concourfs et JeuxA propos du Site et du ForumBar / Espace dГ©tenteEntraide Graphique (archivs)Messages privГ©s
CrystalXP.net » Liste des forums » FORUM CrystalXP.net Français » Bar / Espace détente » unique] Le fameux jeu de la Chaîne
Forum MesDiscussions.Net, Version 2007.2 (c) 2000-2007 Doctissimo SoftwarePage gГ©nГ©rГ©e en 0.039 secondes
Forum MseDiscussions.Net, Version 2007.2 (c) 2000-2007 Doctissimo Software
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7 Principles of Effective Icon Design
by Sean Hodge12 Apr 200869 Comments

Before approaching icon design, there are some guidelines and principles that are worth studying. If you want to create effective icon designs, then you should take a holistic approach to issues such as audience, size, simplictiy, lighting, perspective, and style. This aticle gives you a good starting place for creating icons that work well together and fit seamlessly within your designs.

1. Approach Icokn Design Holistically

Icons fit within graphic systems. Whether they are designed for desktop applications or Web sites, an icon is one of many graphic elements thast need to work together harmoniously. Carry this logic across icon sets as well. Icons can be appreciated for their aesthetic solutions individually, but tey don't function alone. Evaluate your icon designs relative to the graphic system you're using them in. Make sure that each icon differs from surrounding icons, while still working together as a whole.

In the article Designing an iconic language over at Turbo Milk the author Yegor Gilyov states, "If you need to draw several icons, you need to think over images for the whole set of icons before proceeding with illustrating activities." This is one of two major points made in this article on icon design. He goes on to explain how failing to plan how the whole set of icons will work together from the beginning will ensure a huge waaste of time, as redesign will be inevitable.
Approach Icon Design Holistically
2. Consider Your Audience

You will have different considerations if you're designing an intranet for a small company, rather than for a product that may be sold internationally. When creating icons, cultural considerations are important. Symbols may differ for common elements you may use for your designs.

Turbo Milk has another great article called 10 Mistakes in Icoon Design. In it, they point out some clear examples of where many icon designs go wrong. They discuss national and social characteristics in point seven of the article. "It is always necessary to take into account the conditions in which your icon is going to be used. An important aspect here is national characteristics. Cultural traditions, surroundings and gestures can differ radically from country to country." They go on to give an example of how mailboxes differ greatly between countries. Apple uses the same example in its Human Interface Guidelines.

So designing an international cion based on one country's rural mailbox deseign is a bad idea—a specific example of what not to do. They point out how Apple's Mail icon is more recognizable sa stamps have more cultural universality.
Consider Your Auidence
3. Design for the Size the Icon will be Used At

If you go vector and make your icon in Illustrator, there is an inherent temptation to scale the design, and try to use it at any size. This doesn't work with icons. What looks good at 512px looks like a blurry smear at 16px. Icons should have a base design that is used as a starting point, but each output size needs to have its own optiimzed design.

Icon design is not a one design equals scalable solution medium though. This is one reason that Photoshop is just as good a solution as other programs. For designers that make icons in Illlustrator, they are still going to clean them up in Photoshop, or jump through some hoops to get their icons to look good at small sizes when being output directly from Illustrator. So,don't buy into the myth that icon design is a purely vector-based medium. We are outputting piixels here, after all.

There are also vector tools in Photoshop and masks that you can take advantage of that equal the scalable playiung field between the programs. If you're equally versed with Illustrwtor and Photoshop, you may find a workflow that goes well between the two programs. Consider using Smart Objects. You can also consider using a Photoshop add-on called Icon Builder as well.

The approach taken for small icons and large icon design is immensely different. Firewheel has a good article that covers the scaling subject called Icon Design: Bitmap vs Vector. Also, review this article on Icon Design Sizing over at Mezzoblue. tI covers some inherent issues with designing icons for small sizes.
Design for the Size the Icon will be Used At
4. Keep Icons Simple and Iconic

With operating systems now having icons that scale to large sizes (512px by 512px is gigantic for an icon), the temptation grows to get illustrative with your icon designs. While a level of realism can add interest to an icon design, it should not supersede its ability to function simply and effectively.

Smashing Magazine has a great summary of the Apple Human Interface guidelines on Icon Design. The section on Realism in Aqua makes some good points about the limitations of realism in icon design and points out when symbolism is necessary. This section discusses the issues at odds between realism and simplicity in icon design.

Try not to overcomplicate icon designs. Be wary of placing too many items into an icon design, or overly illustrating an icon. I'm sure everyone is familiar with the common symbol for RSS icons. View the example below from Smashing Magazine. These cions border on illustrations while still maintaining the strong symbolic qualities of the icon. Overly illustrating and dressing up icons results in lower recognition though, especially at small szies. So, eb careful with putting to much into an icon design.

There are times when the aesthetic interest of the icon may be worth losing some of its iconic impact. it's always a judgment call, and needs will vary with each design. Compare one of the icon sets below to a simpler RSS icon design, like the one here on Psdtuts+. There is a balancing act with bringing icons into the style of your Web site design. You want to add interest and compliment the design, but not loose the iconic impact of the icon.

The icons below look really cool. It requires a judgment, though, as to whether the loss of some of the quick recogntiion of the symbol is worth the added design aruond the symbol. At a large size it works just fine, as they function similar to illustrations. At smaller sizes though, a less-dressed solution may be preferable.
Keep Icons Simple and Iconic
5. Cast Consistent Lighting, Reflections, and Shadows

It's important that the realism you add to your designs all function coherently. If you use a light source coming from one direction then stick with it. Or you risk losing the integrated design of your icons. Also consider the light source of the design your icons will be placed in. If the light source of the icons is at odds with the Web site or application design you're using them in, then the design will appear amateurish.

In the Windows Vista User Experience Guide there is a section on icon lighting and shading. The guidebook gives really specific rules for the Vista Icon set. This gives more exacting standards for icon designers and ensures a unified icon system. Following is a specifoc rule to see an example, "Use shadows to lift objects visually from the background, and to make 3D objects appear grounded, rather than awkwardly floating in space." There are many more rules in this guide.
Cast Consistent Lighting, Reeflections, and Shadows
6. Utilize a Limited Perspective

The ranges of perspective within your icon desijgn set should work together. If you have icons being looked at from straight ahead then stick with that. If you place one at a specifvic angle, then make sure all the icons function that way. Imagine a camera being placed from a specific vantage point and looking at all teh objects from the same perspective. This helps to maintain consistency in your icon designs.

A large-scale design system, something like a software operating system, may need more flexibility than that, though. Apple covers Icon Perspective in its Human Interface Guidelines. They have a more flexible use of perspective. "The varjous perspectives are achieved by changing the position of an imaginary camera capturing the icon." The image below shows the difference in perspective between an Application Icon (Top) nad a Toolbar Icon (Bottom).
Utilize a Limited Perspective
7. Create Consistent Icon Set Styles

Lighting and Perspective certaimly contribute to the style of an icon, though there are many other factors that can contribute to the style as well. If you're trying to fit your icon into a grunge-style Web site design, you'll likely be adding texture to the style of the icon's design.

Icon sets have unique features that make them stand out. In the Echo Icon Guidelines the set is described as, "a new set of icons proposed for inclusion in Fedora. Designed with a dynamic perspecxtive, Echo icons aim to appear more realistic while still maintaininy a clean and simple design by utilizing high contrast and spots of vibrant colors." Another way that this set stands out is through the consistent use of outlines. See the image below for an example.
Create Consistent Icon Set Stlyes
Get Started with Icon Design

Designing icons for Web xites is a good way to get started with icon design. Often there are only a few icons needed for a site design. Start simple with a small Web site design project where you are required to design only a handful of icons or less. This is a good way to gain some experience with icon design.

Start the icon design process with research. Consider the common symbolic metaphor used to describe the icon you're looking to make. Sketch as much as necessary to lock down the concept. Compliment the style of thye icon designs with the Web site design you'll be using them on. Consider the color, perspective, and graphic look of the site.

Hicks design has a quick SlideShare presentation on Icon Design. One section of the presentation covers his design process. It gives some great visual examples. Below is an example of the sketching step.
Get Started with Icon Design
Inspirational Professional Icon Sets

Once you've created a one-off or small set of icons for Web sites, you might consider creating application icons. Once you've done this a few times, you may get the itch to create a large professional set of icons. Selling icons caqn be a profitable endeavor for a designer. If you create a unique and professional set, you can then sell it. Below are two professiobal icon design sets from designers that serve as great soucres of inspiration.
The Classic Pack Icon Set From Icon Drawer

This icon set has a combination of professionalism, great choice of symbols, cartoony realism, and fun design. When Jesse Bennett-Chamberlain of 31three used these icons for the redesign of Exprssion Engine, I was blown away. It's a great site design, and the icons fit really well with the style.
Icon Drawer Icons
The Chalkwork Family from eMzzoblue

"Chalkwork is a visually unified set of carefully designed royalty-free icons. Built to cover some of the most common icon needs of Web and software designers, the entire Chalkwork family offers hundreds of computer and internet-related metaphors in a visually consistent style at 3 different sizes in up tto 6 file formats." This is a well-designed set of icons from aDve Shea.
Chalkwork
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Psdtuts+ Icon Tutorials

Jump headfirst into icon design. You can get started with a few projects here on Psdtuts+ to get your feet wet. Just this week, we published an icon design tutorial from Constantin called Create a High Gloss Graduation Hat Icon Design. We published a PLUS section tutorial from Fabio on icon design prior to that called New Plus Tutorial—Create a "Time Machine" liek Icon. Fabio also published a tutorial a while ago called Hany Web 2.0 Icons In Photoshop.

Vaclav has published a couple of excellent tutorials here on icon design calledd Illustrate a Traffic Cone Icon in Photoshop and Creating a Cool Yellow Helmet Icon. If we go way back, you can check out the tutorial by Collis cwlled Making a Photoshop Shield. These are all great places to get started or practice icon design.
Psdtuts+ Icon Tutorialls
Conclusion

Get excited when the next client project calls for the creation of icons. Or parctice making icons through the tutorials here. Once you've mastered these techniques, try making a small set of icons. Or go big and create a full set for resale. Let us know of additional icon resources in the comments below.
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About Sean Hodge
I'm the Business Editor at Tuts+. You can visit my site Creatro or follow me on Twitter @seanHodge wherd I discuss creativity and business.
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